Are Dark Matter And Dark Energy Concepts Dead at Last?

Hypothetical Type of Dark Matter and Dark Energy

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HYPOTHETICAL CANDIDATES

 

It looks like they still have a pulse… Even though some theoretical candidates are dead based on observations and direct testing experimentation, they are still trying to ride those dead horses, so who knows how long it will take to get to the live ones.


There are a lot of theories and candidates with Dark Matter, but they are presently best understood based on observations of gravitational influence around galaxies (disks and halos) and its effects on visible matter, radiation, large-scale structures of the universe, and they are obviously transparent to light.


Dark Matter is even found in our solar system at 300 times higher density compared to most galaxies. It’s essentially everywhere, even on this planet, it’s more a matter of its density and eventually being able to direct test for it.


Theoretical Dark Matter Types:


  1. WIMP hypothetical particle coming out of supersymmetry, with 100,000 of these passing through every square centimeter each second, has been ruled out by astronomical observations, but if found may suggest multiple types of dark matter.
  2. WIMPzilla - supermassive dark matter may have a mass many orders of magnitude larger than the weak scale, possibly as large as the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) scale.
  3. Axion like particles which also came out of out of supersymmetry has been ruled out, except for some recent academic experiments.
  4. QDC - Quantum Chromodunamics Axions is the strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the fundamental particles that make up composite hadrons such as the proton, neutron and pion.
  5. MaCHOs, massive astrophysical compact halo object, which at best could only account for a small percent of dark matter.
  6. Macros – Macroscopic Dark Matter - candidates could potentially be assembled out of Standard Model particles (quarks and leptons) in the early universe.
  7. Kaluza-Klein particle, built around the existence of a 5th dimension, which could interact with both gravity and electromagnetism, based on a precursor to string theory.
  8. Gravitino, yet another hypothetical candidate coming out of supersymmetry, thought to mediate gravity, largely because some scientists want to determine if nature is supersymmetric or not, with symmetry between matter and forces, such as the theoretical graviton and the gravitino, so dark matter is secondary, and ordinary matter is more practical to work with.
  9. CDM- cold dark matter is the standard model of Big Bang cosmology.
  10. SIDM - strongly interacting dark matter has some interesting simulations of halo profiles as cold dark matter (CDM), but solves larger than predicted elastic cross section problems, which could be the right size if dark matter is composite.
  11. SIDM - self-interacting dark matter, in contrast to the collision less dark matter assumed by the cold dark matter (CDM) model.
  12. SVT - Superfuid Vacume Theoy is an approach in theoretical physics and quantum mechanics where the fundamental physical vacuum (non-removable background) is viewed as superfluid or as a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC)
  13. MoND – Modified Newtonian Dynamics is a theory that proposes a modification of Newton's laws to account for observed properties of galaxies.
  14. TeVeS – Tensor-Vevtor-Scalar Gravity a relativistic Lagrangian density, which forms the basis of this theory.
  15. Entropic Gravity - emergent gravity, is a theory in modern physics that describes gravity as anentropic force—a force with macro-scale homogeneity but which is subject to quantum-level disorder—and not a fundamental interaction.


Dark Matter experiments include:


  • ADMX, located at the University of Washington, searches for the axion, a hypothetical neutral elementary particle that has only minor interactions with normal matter and radiation.
  • ALPS is laser experiment, based at the DESY laboratory in Germany, that searches for photon oscillations into WISPs.
  • AMS is a precision particle physics detector installed on the International Space Station, where collisions of dark matter would produce an excess of positrons.
  • ANAIS was developed by the University of Zaragoza in Spain. The experiment pursues dark matter by looking at a target of sodium iodide (NaI), material which produces small scintillations when a particle interacts and deposits some energy.
  • ANTARES is an underwater neutrino telescope located 2475 meters under the Mediterranean Sea. WIMPs, one of the top candidates for dark matter, could theoretically self-annihilate in the center of massive astrophysical objects such as the sun.
  • ArDM, in northern Spain, seeks to detect WIMPs. It looks for nuclear recoils produced by dark matter particles scattering off target nuclei within 1‑ton of liquid argon.
  • BAIKAL Neutrino Telescope NT-200 is located in the Siberian lake Baikal at a depth of approximately 1 kilometer. It measures dark matter in the form of neutrinos created from dark matter annihilation in the center of the sun.
  • COUPP-60, located at the Canadian SNOLAB underground site, searches for WIMPs using stable, room-temperature bubble chambers.
  • CTA is a planned next-generation, ground-based, very-high-energy gamma-ray instrument. Theoretical models predict that dark matter can annihilate or decay to detectable Standard Model particles, including a large number of very-high-energy gamma rays.
  • CDMS collaboration uses solid-state detectors cooled to extremely low temperatures to search for WIMPs, a favored candidate for dark matter.
  • CoGeNT experiment looks for a type of dark-matter particle called a WIMP, specifically those relatively light in mass.
  • CRESST searches for WIMPs using detectors operated at extremely low temperatures, where WIMP interactions can heat up the detectors strong enough in order to be detected.
  • DAMA/LIBRA experiment, a dark matter detector buried in Italy’s Gran Sasso mountain, saw a promising pattern in their data and continues to observe this modulation.
  • DarkSide program proposes to develop and operate a series of novel liquid argon detectors for the detection of WIMPs.
  • DARWIN goal is to complete the necessary research for the construction of the ultimate dark matter detector, using several tons of liquid xenon and/or liquid argon for the direct detection of particle dark matter, pushing the sensitivity to new levels in order WIMP detection.
  • DEAP 3600 is a liquid Argon single phase detector. It is located at SNOLAB in Sudbury, Ontario, roughly 2 kilometers underground. As WIMPs travel through the detector, they will elastically scatter off argon nuclei and cause light to be emitted.
  • EDELWEISS experiment is dedicated to the direct detection of dark matter particles from within France’s Modane Underground Laboratory, but did not observe any WIMPs.
  • EURECA is a planned experiment that would seek to detect the scattering of WIMPs by atomic nuclei, using cryogenic detectors operating at millikelvin temperatures.
  • FGST-LAT Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope works to unveil the high-energy universe. There are also controversial hints of a dark matter signal from the center of the Milky Way from non-LAT collaboration.
  • GAPS is a proposed balloon-based indirect dark matter search focusing on antiparticles produced by WIMPs.
  • HESS observatory uses Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes, located in Namibia, to investigate very high-energy cosmic gamma rays from weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs).
  • HPS is hunting for new particles that mediate dark matter interactions, known as dark matter force particles, at Virginia's Jefferson Lab.
  • IceCube Neutrino Observatory is the world's largest neutrino detector at the South Pole that records the interactions of nearly massless subatomic particles. Dark matter may gravitationally cluster and begin to self-annihilate.
  • KIMS searches for WIMPs from within the preexisting Yangyang Pumped Storage Power Plant in Yangyang, Korea. There, several large, pure cesium iodide (CsI) crystals would light up with the detection of WIMPs.
  • LHC at CERN may produce dark matter particles if they are light enough, which could infer their existence from the amount of energy and momentum missing after a collision. More than 100 experimental physicists are part of this search for identify dark matter candidates.
  • LUX-ZEPLIN, will have a full 10 tons of xenon nearly a mile under the town of Lead, South Dakota, will wrap up in 2020.
  • LZ experiment is a planned second-generation dark matter experiment at South Dakota's Sanford Underground Research Facility. LZ will look for signals caused by the collisions of WIMPs.
  • MAGIC telescopes are ground-based, Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes located at the Roque de Los Muchachos, Spain, measure gamma-ray sources in the very high-energy range, which may result from annihilation of WIMPs.
  • MiniBooNE-DM is looking for signatures of such accelerator-produced high energy dark matter that scatter off nucleons, producing scintillation light which can be detected by photo-multiplier tubes.
  • PAMELA is a cosmic ray research detector onboard the Resurs-DK1 Russian satellite that searches for the annihilation products of WIMPs.
  • PANDA-X experiments, at the China Jin-Ping Underground Laboratory, searches for WIMPs in the low mass region using point-contact germanium semi-conductor detectors and xenon detectors; major upgrades through 2020.
  • PICASSO project is a dark matter search experiment presently installed and taking data in the underground laboratory at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. PICASSO’s detectors are made up of millions of tiny droplets of superheated liquid to detect the passage of WIMPs.
  • SIMPLE experiment from deep within the Laboratoire Souterrain à Bas Bruit in southern France, the experiment’s detectors use superheated chloropentafluoroethane to detect WIMPs.
  • SK is a 50 kilo-ton water Cherenkov detector, an indirect dark matter search is for neutrinos and neutrino-induced muons from annihilations of WIMPs, specifically lower mass due to its lower neutrino energy threshold.
  • VERITAS is a series of four ground-based imaging Cherenkov telescopes in southern Arizona, which focuses on the indirect search for very-high-energy gamma rays from dwarf galaxies which would result from the interaction or decay of dark matter particles.
  • XENON Dark Matter Search, underway in Italy’s Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, uses liquid xenon in its hunt for dark matter particles and has led the field for years with some of the most stringent limits on the interaction between WIMPs and normal matter. The upgrade, called XENON-nt, should be wrapped up in 2020.
  • XMASS project aims to detect dark matter, solar neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay using ultra pure liquid xenon.


Theoretical Dark Energy Projects:


There are various projects slated over the next 10 years in laboratories, with ground based telescopes, and with new satellites. In some regards its cooperative, in other regards its a race.


Dark energy is a very active target for research because of its status as a hypothetical force with unknown properties, making the problem be attached from a wide range of angles, such as modifying the theory of gravity, interacting dark energy, variable dark energy, vacuum energy, and repulsive gravity.


Dark Energy studies include:


  1. Plotting the expansion rate of the universe.
  2. Seeing how consistent dark energy is.
  3. Search for sound waves created by the Big Bang.
  4. More complex pictures of the history of the universe.
  5. Study the universe at inferred frequencies.
  6. Role of dark energy.


Dark Energy experiments include:


Based on the papers from the full collection of The Grand Unification of Dark Matters: The Dark Universe Revealed: Dan Sharpe: 9781520306315: Amazon.com: Books

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The Shadow Universe of Dark Matter Life: (Amazon)

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